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Table 1 Spices used in the present study and evidence of their activities.

From: Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes

Spice samples (Family) Herbarium Voucher numbera Part used Bioactive (or potentially active) compoundsb and screened activityc for crude plant extract
Fagara xanthozyloïdes
Watern. (Rutaceae)
21793/HNC/SRF Fruits Antimicrobial activity of essential oil [S: Ec, Bc, Bs, Af, Kp, Sa, Sf [19]; Cytotoxicity of fruits crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [27]
Dichrostachys glomerata
( Forsk) chuov (Mimosaceae)
15220/SRF-Cam Bark, fruits Cytotoxicity of roots crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines][27]
Aframomum citratum
(Pereira). Schum (Zingiberaceae)
37736/SRF-Cam Leaves, fruits Cytotoxicity of leaves crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [27]
Beilschmiedia cinnamomea (Stapf) Robyns & Wilczek (Lauraceae) 6933/SRF-Cam Roots /
Echinops giganteus
A. Rich. (Asteraceae)
23647/SRF-Cam Rhizomes Antimicrobial [lupeol sitosteryl; β-D-glucopyranoside] [2831]; Cytotoxicity of rhizome crude methanol extract [Significant activity with IC50 values of 6.68; 7.96 and 9.84 μg/ml respectively on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, CEM/5000 cells and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [27]
Mondia whitei
(Hook F). Skell. (Periplocaceae)
42920/HNC Fruits Reproduction system [Roots water extract (400 mg/kg/day) for 55 days caused testicular lesions resulting in the cessation of spermatogenesis, degenerative changes in the somniferous tubules and epididymides in rats] [32]
Olax subscorpioidea
Oliv. (Olacaceae)
3528/SRFK Seeds Antibacterial and cytotoxic against Artemia salina [Santalbic acid] [33, 34]; Cytotoxicity of leaves crude methanol extract on cancer cells [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines and significant activity with IC50 of 10.65 μg/ml on CEM/ADR5000 cells] [27]
Solanum melongena L.Var inerme D.C Hiern. (Solanaceae) 22615/SRFC Fruits Antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and petrol ether extracts of the fruits: [Q: Tm, Tr, Tt, Ca et Tb [35]
Piper capense
Lin.f (Piperaceae)
7650/SRF-Cam Fruits Insecticidal [N-isobutyl-ll-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E, 4E, 10E-undecatrienamide; N-pyrrolidyl-12-(3, 4-methylene-dioxyphenyl)-2E, 4E, 9E, 11Z-dodecatetraenamide; N-isobutyl-13-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E, 4E, 12E-tridecatrienamide; N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-decadienamide; N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-dodecadienamide] [36]; Cytotoxicity of fruit crude methanol extract [Significant activity with IC50 values of 7.02; 6.56 and 8.92 μg/ml respectively on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, CEM/5000 cells and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [27]
Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. (Annonaceae) 16419/SRF-Cam Bark, leaves, roots, seeds Antimicrobial [volatile oil of seeds] [19]; Antioxidant [volatile oil of seeds] [37]; Cytotoxicity of seeds crude methanol extract [Significant activity with IC50 values of 3.91; 7.4 and 6.86 μg/ml respectively on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, CEM/5000 cells and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [27]
Scorodophloeus zenkeri
Harms. (Caesalpinaceae)
44803/SRF-Cam Bark Antimicrobial: [2, 4, 5, 7-Tetrathiaoctane; 2, 4, 5, 6, 8-pentathianonane; 2, 3, 4, 6, 8-pentathianonane; 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10-hexathiaundecane; 2, 3, 5-trithiahexane 5-oxide; 2, 4, 5, 7-tetrathiaoctane 2-oxide; 2, 3, 5, 7-tetrathiaoctane 3, 3-dioxide; 2, 3, 5-trithiahexane 3, 3-dioxide [38]; Cytotoxicity of bark crude methanol extract on cancer cells [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines and significant activity with IC50 of 10.65 μg/ml on CEM/ADR5000 cells] [27]
  1. a(HNC): Cameroon National Herbarium; (SRF): Société des reserves forestières; Cam: Cameroon; b(/): Not reported
  2. c[Screened activity: significant (S: CMI < 100 μg/ml), moderate (M: 100 < CMI ≤ 625 μg/ml), Weak (W: CMI > 625 μg/ml) Q: Qualitative activity based on the determination of inhibition zone [11, 12]. Tm: Trichophyton mentagophytes; Tr: Trichophyton rubrum; Tt: Trichophyton tonsurans Tb: Trichosporon beigelii; Ca: Candida albicans; Ck: Candida krusei; Af: Aspergillus flavus; Bc: Bacillus cereus; Bs: Bacillus subtilis; Ec: Escherichia coli; Kp: Klebsiella pneumoniae; Sa: Staphylococcus aureus; Sf: Streptococcus faecalis.